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Legal Tender Notes, Series A
'Lady Lavery' Notes

Currency Commission Ireland, Central Bank of Ireland, 1928 - 1977

Lavery war code 10 Pound noteView Irish banknote images

Page under active revision, last update 21.01.22

First Series of Irish Legal Tender Notes

Fourteen Types by Signature and Design. Seven Denominations

The Currency Act, 1927 [2] provided for the establishment of the Currency Commission Ireland and empowered it to issue, control and manage a new Irish currency, the Saorstat Pound, later termed the A Series Legal Tender Notes. Six of the nine Joint Stock commercial banks operating on the island of Ireland had the right to issue notes.

The new note issue was to replace the notes of the Irish joint stock commercial banks then in circulation.

For stability, the currency was linked to and exchangeable at par with the British Pound Sterling. The Irish Pound was divided into 20 shillings, and issued in seven denominations, 10 Shillings, £1, £5, £10, £20, £50, and £100.

The Irish Legal Tender Notes used a largely unchanged design from their creation in 1928 up to 1977. There are fourteen collectible Types, each represented by a change in signatory or an alteration in the design, or both.

Two major variations exist in the Issuing Authority title, the first being notes issued under the Currency Commission, 1928-1942 (Types 1-4); and the second being notes issued under the Central Bank of Ireland, 1943-1977 (Types 5-14).

Another major variation in design was the incorporation of a Special Identification Marking (SIM) into the design of the five lower denominations up to £20 of banknotes produced during the Emergency period of World War 2. Banknotes bearing the SIM, or war code were issued by both Issuing Authorities, Type 4 (1940-1942), and Type 5 (1940-1942).

Irish LegalTender Notes: Linked Picture Pages

Currency Commission Ireland Lavery Specimen Images.
Central Bank of Ireland 1943 War Code Specimen Images.
Central Bank of Ireland Lavery Specimen Images - Post war notes Face and Reverse.
View by Type - Fourteen Types of Legal Tender Notes by signature and design variation.
View by Denomination - An example of each denomination for every Type.
View by Date - An image of every date for which an example has been seen of each denomination.

Lady Lavery Notes, design

The design of the A Series Legal Tender Notes were intended to have a strongly Celtic flavour, and to avoid any political symbolism. The Currency Commission had specified that an archetypal Irish Cailin (Girl) should form the central theme of the design of the notes.

She was, as Kathleen Ni Houlihan, to symbolise the Irish State, a type of symbol often used in the past. The banknotes were designed by Mr. John Harrison, the Chief Portrait Engraver of Waterlow and Sons Ltd, London, who were to print the notes.

A few years before this, Harrison had engraved a series of bookplates for Sir John Lavery, RA. One of these was a portrait by Lavery of his wife, Hazel, Lady Lavery. Harrison adapted this portrait for use on the banknotes. Lady Lavery is depicted in Irish national costume resting her arm on a Cláirseach (Irish Harp). Behind her in the background are lakes and mountains, typical of Ireland.

The full portrait is used on the £10, £20, £50, and £100 denominations, with a head and shoulders cut-off on the lower denominations.

Thus, the notes are colloquially referred to as the Lady Lavery series.

Portrait of Lady Lavery as Kathleen Ni Houlihan, 1928, by Sir John Lavery

Above is the Portrait of Lady Lavery as Kathleen Ni Houlihan, 1928, by Sir John Lavery (1856-1941), Oil on canvas 75.5 x 62.5 cm. The painting is on loan from the Central Bank of Ireland to the National Gallery in Dublin, and is on public display there.

The A Series note design circulated from 1928 to 1982, when it was replaced be the B Series progressively from 1976 to 1982. A design was developed for the B Series £100 note which was not proceeded with, and the A Series £100 note remained in use until it was replaced by a new design C Series £100 note in 1995.

There are several major design variations in the Lady Lavery Series

Lady Lavery Notes: Reverse designs

For the reverse of the Legal Tender Notes, Harrison used designs based on a selection from a series of fourteen stone sculptured masks representing the Atlantic Ocean and thirteen rivers of Ireland. The River Masks were sculpted in the eighteenth century by Edward Smith and adorn the facade of the Custom House, Dublin, one of Ireland’s most attractive buildings. The Custom House itself is the central feature on the reverse of the Consolidated £1 Ploughman note.

For the first four denominations, Ten Shillings through to Ten Pounds, the smile on the faces of the River Gods broadens with ascending value. This may or may not be intentional. From the Twenty Pound note upwards however, the faces maintain a more serious disposition.

The following River Masks were selected for the reverse of the banknotes [2. Moynihan 1975, p. 127]
10 Shillings:
River Blackwater, wearing a headdress of a basket of apples on a carpet of fish.
£1: River Lee.
£5: River Lagan.
£10: River Bann, wearing a linen turban and river pearls.
£20: River Boyne. This one is interesting in that while the original mask on the Custom House appears with the date 1690 on its turban, commemorative of the Battle of the Boyne, this date is omitted on the banknote version.
£50: River Shannon.
£100: River Erne, displaying its eel fisheries on its headdress.

Legal Tender Notes A Series Lavery banknotes: Dimensions in millimetres

Dimensions are from actual measurement of notes, dated 10.9.28. Note: the dimensions tended to vary by several millimetres, depending on the cut. On some earlier notes, the cut has been seen quite off-square.

10 shilling Note, 138 x 78 mm;
£1 Note, 151 x 84 mm; £5 Note, 165 x 92 mm;

£10 Note, 191 x 108 mm; £20 Note, 203 x 114 mm;

£50 Note, 203 x 114 mm; £100 Note, 203 x 114 mm.

Legal Tender Notes: Watermarks

A Series banknotes were printed on watermarked paper. The watermark consisted of the Head of Eirin on the bottom right of each note on all denominations. Additionally, on Ten Shilling, £1, and £5 notes the denomination of the note is in the centre with the letters LTN above it. In the centre of £10 notes is the denomination with the letters LTN on either side of it, and on £20, £50, and £100 notes the letters LTN are in the centre. This is illustrated below on a Ten Shilling note.

Watermark on Lavery Ten Shilling note

The watermarks can be seen on this illustration of a Lavery Ten Shilling note, the letters 'LTN' above '10/-' and the Head of Eirin on the right

Watermark mesh for Lavery One Pound note

A watermark mesh for a Lavery One Pound note

Ireland 10 Pounds LaveryIreland 5 Pounds LaveryIreland One Pound LaveryIreland 10 Shillings
Ireland 20 Pounds LaveryIreland 50 Pounds LaveryIreland 100 Pounds Lavery

Twenty Pounds 1961 SpecimenLavery 50 Pound noteLavery 100 Pound note
Lavery 5 Pound noteLavery PoundCentral Bank of Ireland 10 Shilling

General references

1. Moynihan, Dr M. 'Currency and Central Banking in Ireland 1922–1960', Gill & Macmillan and The Central Bank of Ireland, 1975.
2. Currency Act (1927).


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